Albin Egger-Lienz was an Austrian painter. He was born in Stribach near
Lienz, Tyrol, Austria on January 29, 1868 and died on November 4, 1926
in St. Justina-Rentsch, Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy.
As an artist, he had a special preference for rustic genre and historical
paintings; under the influence of Ferdinand Hodler, Egger-Lienz abstracted
his formal language into monumental expressiveness.
He trained first under his father (a church painter), later he studied
at the Academy in Munich where he was influenced by Franz Defregger and
French painter Jean-François Millet. In 1899 he moved to Vienna.
During 1911 and 1912 he was professor at the Weimar School of Fine Arts
and he served as war painter during World War I. In 1918, he turned down
a professorship at the Vienna Academy and settled in South Tyrol.
Albin Egger-Lienz. (2006, November 3). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
Retrieved 01:31, February 2, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Albin_Egger-Lienz&oldid=85487678
Max Ernst was born on April 2, 1891 in Brühl, Germany. In 1910,
he enrolled in the University of Bonn to study philosophy, literature,
art history, psychology and psychiatry. He completed his studies in 1914
just as WWI broke out.
In 1918 he married the art historian Luise Straus a stormy relationship
that would not last. She died in Auschwitz in 1945. In 1919 Ernst visited
Paul Klee and created his first paintings, block prints and collages,
and experimented with mixed media. During World War I he served in the
German army and after the war, filled with new ideas, Ernst, Jean Arp
and social activist Alfred Grünwald, formed the Cologne, Germany
Dada group, but two years later, in 1922, he returned to the artistic
community at Montparnasse in Paris.
Constantly experimenting, in 1925 he invented a graphic art technique
called frottage, which uses pencil rubbings of objects as a source of
images. The next year he collaborated with Joan Miró on designs
for Sergei Diaghilev. With Miró's help, Ernst pioneered grattage
in which he troweled pigment from his canvases.
Ernst drew a great deal of controversy with his 1926 painting The Virgin
Chastises the infant Jesus before Three Witnesses: André Breton,
Paul Éluard, and the Painter.
In Montparnasse he was a central figure in the birth of Breton's desire
to ostracize Ernst's friend Éluard.
In 1927 he married Marie-Berthe Aurenche. It is said that "his relationship
with her may have inspired the erotic subject matter of this painting
and others of this year."
Ernst began to sculpt in 1934, and spent time with Alberto Giacometti.
Ernst developed a fascination with birds that was prevalent in his work.
His alter ego in paintings, that he called Loplop, was a bird that he
suggested was an extension of himself stemming from an early confusion
of birds and humans. He said his sister was born soon after his bird died.
Loplop often appeared in collages of other artists work, such as collages
like Loplop presents André Breton, and they usually had a bird
foot-like object superimposed on another artist's of the Bride.
Following the onset of World War II, Ernst was detained as an enemy alien
in France but with the assistance of the American journalist Varian Fry
in Marseille, he managed to escape the country with Peggy Guggenheim.
He left behind his lover, Leonora Carrington, which caused her to suffer
a major mental breakdown. Ernst and Guggenheim arrived in the United States
in 1941 and were married the following year. Along with other artists
and friends (Marcel Duchamp and Marc Chagall) who had fled from the war
and lived in New York City, Ernst helped inspire the development of Abstract
His marriage to Guggenheim did not last, and in Beverly Hills, California
in October of 1946, in a double ceremony with Man Ray and Juliet Browner,
he married Dorothea Tanning.
Ernst remained primarily in the United States, living in Sedona, Arizona,
and in 1948 wrote the treatise Beyond Painting. As a result of the publicity,
he began to achieve financial success.
In 1963 he and Tanning moved to a small town in the south of France where
he continued to work. He City, and the Galeries Nationales du Grand-Palais
in Paris published a complete catalogue of his works.
Ernst died on April 1, 1976, in Paris, France and was interred there
in the Père Lachaise Cemetery.
Max Ernst. (2007, January 26). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved
01:36, February 2, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Max_Ernst&oldid=103473852
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